'The double standards are obvious,' said one Turkmen official.
An ever-growing demand for water due to economic development, population growth, and climate change, presents significant challenges to the region's economic expansion.
The Kremlin waited until Turkmenistan was in a financial bind to press for gas sales at only a fraction of what the country once sold its only viable export.
Kazakhstan, which now has the ability to meet domestic demand, will soon start exporting between 500,000 and 650,000 tonnes per year.
The investment will address a major issue for the region: the provision of uninterrupted and sustainable power supply to support economic growth and to improve the well-being of the population.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Green Climate Fund are backing the largest solar plant built at one time in Central Asia.
The $3.9 billion project is expected to transform the Tajik economy and warm relations with neighbouring countries such as Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Russia's claims of shared interests in Central Asian energy deals rings hollow when it comes to the strategic gas industry, observers say.
The US-based company will provide and install equipment to produce base oils in Fergana Province under an agreement with Uzbek joint-stock company Uzbekneftegaz.
The Kyrgyz government and the Asian Development Bank are working to install solar power systems in remote areas of the country.