The leaders of the two countries oversaw the signing of dozens of agreements and trade contracts worth more than $500 million.
Strengthening ties will help both countries develop rapidly and stimulate their economy, observers predict.
Integration of Central Asian states will help improve security and prosperity in the region, predicts Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev.
EU concerns include preventing youth radicalisation, the Iranian nuclear programme and achieving stability in Afghanistan, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said.
The US Consulate General teamed with private businesses to open a new collaborative community centre.
The most tangible sign of progress was the re-opening of the long-restricted Dostuk/Dustlik border crossing.
The recently concluded conference revealed that regional and international peace might more easily be found by getting to know neighbours than by fearing them.
After many years of distrust, both sides appear optimistic about the future.
Long-awaited flights are scheduled to start in April, according to Uzbekistan Airways.
The two countries vowed to triple trade, develop joint projects and increase security in the region.