The main challenges the ten Economic Co-operation Organisation (ECO) countries face are extremism, terrorism and drug trafficking, officials say.
An electrified railway will reduce the cost of shipping and boost trade, stakeholders say.
The two countries agreed to work together to fight extremism and enhance economic relations.
New jobs and improved social conditions will help fight extremism in Afghanistan and increase security on the Uzbek-Afghan border, observers say.
New apartment buildings for Uzbekistani troops opened across the country on May 31 and June 10.