For some university subjects in Uzbekistan, there are 20 applicants per available slot. Teachers are also significantly underpaid. Authorities are responding.
Efforts are meant to prevent the religious from becoming involved in extremist and terrorist organisations, specialists say.
Radicals are misusing Kazakhstani youth as a means to spread extremist ideas.
Authorities run a public awareness campaign at schools in different provinces as part of 'Peace Dialogue' project to fight extremism and terrorism.
The Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Kazakhstan (SAMK) and the government are joining efforts to improve imams' education and fight extremism.
Starting this school year, 10 pilot schools in Kyrgyzstan will introduce a new subject - History of Religious Culture.
Military schools are expanding their curriculum.
The government wants to prevent the radicalisation and exodus of more citizens.