With pro-Kremlin propaganda rampant on Russian TV and online, Central Asians are turning to local media and trusted websites for political and international news, observers say.
Internews' latest Eduthon conference in Astana focused on raising media literacy and countering extremism in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
Facebook removed 364 pages and accounts that claimed to be independent, but in fact had ties to Sputnik employees.
The military, ideological and cyber wars being waged against IS have greatly impaired the group's media capabilities.
Efforts are being made to produce high quality media content and raise the level of critical media consumption by representatives of civil society, decision-makers and ordinary citizens.
In addition to the film being paned by audience members and critics, airing the movie could have been construed as Kazakhstan's tacit approval of Russia's 2014 illegal annexation.
Russian media abroad try to highlight friendly ties with populations in Central Asia, but at home, they are busy inciting ethnic hatred and fear toward the same people.
The award-winning film is expected to screen this November in five US cities, including Los Angeles and New York, and could be shown in more cities based on demand.
Kazakh journalists sent a strong message to the Kremlin by awarding Telegram founder Pavel Durov for his efforts against state interference.
A Kremlin-backed website featuring a forged letter from Uzbekistan's Foreign Ministry to the US ambassador to Uzbekistan again spotlights Russia's efforts to divide Washington and Tashkent.