The fall of Baghouz, the last remaining bastion of the 'Islamic State', marks the death of its so-called 'caliphate', but the threat of the terrorist group remains.
Recent gains brought a months-old operation to wipe out the last vestige of IS's once-sprawling proto-state closer to its inevitable outcome.
Okila Urokova, the wife of a Tajik militant who travelled to Afghanistan and Pakistan, was eventually able to return home, unlike others.
Authorities in Kazakhstan have identified several terrorist groups since the beginning of the year and have foiled a planned attack on military and police.
Gas was used in a 2018 attack that killed 43, according to a report that emerged despite Russian and Syrian attempts to impede the investigation.
His location is unknown, but many speculate he is near the Afghan-Pakistani border.
The estimate the number of people inside the last IS bastion, a patch of half a square kilometre on the banks of the Euphrates River, at anything from a few hundred to several thousand.
The arrest of two men with ties to IS accused of plotting to attack police in Satbayev is the latest move by Kazakh authorities against terrorism.
Kazakhs who have seen the true face of 'Islamic State' could help prevent extremism and radicalisation at home, analysts say.
Alexandr Bekmirzaev converted to Islam in Uzbekistan about 20 years ago but became 'radicalised' and 'brainwashed' after going to Syria in 2013.