Washington and Astana are exploring ways to expand Kazakh energy deliveries without having to go through Moscow.
Fears are growing around the world that Russia's reckless occupation of Europe's largest nuclear plant -- using it as a cover to wage attacks on Ukrainian forces -- will end in disaster.
The Middle Corridor, also known as the Trans-Caspian International Transport Route, could enable Kazakhstan to bypass Russia as it works to decouple itself from its northern neighbour.
Moscow is using the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) as a means to pressure Kazakhstan over its support for Ukraine, say observers.
In the wake of Russia's attack on Ukraine, Germany, which imports half of its liquefied natural gas from Russia, is seeking alternatives.
Authorities are seizing farmers' land, paying well below value, and even beating or jailing those who do not comply -- all in the rush to host the first 'green' Games.
One of the projects is a five-year, $39 million programme to help regional countries meet their national energy priorities and reap economic benefits from cross-border energy trading.
Moscow is not letting up on its attempts to impose its nuclear plant on Kazakhstan, but Kazakhs are wary of the economic, environmental and political costs of doing business with Russia.
The Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline is an opportunity to increase Central Asia's gas exports and reduce Europe's reliance on Russian gas.
Discontent is mounting among Turkmens because seemingly attractive loans for economic ventures have only profited China while regular citizens continue to suffer in poverty.