Despite repeated warnings, Iran and its proxies have launched numerous attacks against US personnel and its allies for nearly a year. The attack on the US embassy was the last straw.
Formerly timid criticism of the former colonial power is becoming louder in the region, while governments in the region are taking concrete steps to separate themselves from Moscow.
The United Nations said more than 80% of those who have fled Russian and Syrian bombings are women and children, who are particularly vulnerable because of the freezing weather.
Central Asian governments are joining efforts in strengthening border security, fighting terrorism and increasing regional co-operation.
Efforts are under way to protect Kazakhstan's borders and sovereignty.
Twenty police officers, prosecutors and representatives of the Financial Monitoring Committee and some private-sector employees took part in the live-action training.
In 2019, a string of disasters and accidents has plagued Russia's military, fanning growing concerns over the country's aging defence systems.
A lack of funding is behind the poor security, said a top official.
Beijing 'seems to be interested in everything that is happening in our country,' Kazakh observers say.
Kazakhstan and the United States have been bolstering co-operation in areas such as peacekeeping and counter-terrorism.