Russian jets have on several recent occasions flouted a 'deconfliction' agreement with the US that is designed to safeguard both militaries.
Central Asia's most powerful military is continuing sweeping reforms in order to tackle new challenges.
A new strategic security document details a litany of subversive activities that Moscow directs in Central Asia and across the world.
Residents feel safer than ever as authorities refuse to ease up on possible threats.
Officials and clerics from both countries have called on Muslims to promote progressive Islamic values and counter extremism.
With the 'Islamic State' on the verge of defeat, Kazakhstanis who joined the group are likely to begin returning home, where they will face anti-terrorism measures.
The growing interest in the US military education system among Kazakhstanis is not surprising given on-going co-operation between the the two countries.
The Russian Ministry of Defence attempted to pass off images from a video game as 'proof' the US military was aiding militants. Social media users debunked Moscow's claims.
Among a number of initiatives, a US-funded centre in Almaty trains Kazakhstani police how to handle K9 dogs search for illegal drugs.
The Kazakhstani Defence Ministry and the OSCE jointly hosted the training with the support of the US State Department.