Senior al-Qaeda leaders' apparent ability to function under Iranian protection supports claims that Tehran and bin Laden had a working relationship.
One study of convicted extremists in Central Asia, concluded this year, found gender-specific motivations among men and women.
Uzbekistani national Sayfullo Saipov, accused of killing eight people in New York, is one of four Central Asians implicated in or guilty of terrorist attacks around the world this year.
Central Asia's most populous country has vowed to help investigate a massacre committed by an Uzbekistani rental truck driver.
The group has appealed to women to fight in Syria and Iraq in a last ditch effort that signals its imminent collapse, observers say.
The Taliban have been using advanced weapons available only to the Russian military, according to a security source in western Afghanistan.
After her brother called her to join him in Syria, a Tajik woman returns home to face trial.
When high-risk prisoners are jailed, they often become anxious and depressed, which pushes them towards religion, making them easily exploitable by extremists.
The group's ultra-extremist elements are assailing dissenters who think ISIS has gone too far in its attempt to enforce a hardline ideology.
The policy permits former extremists' return to peaceful life, say observers.