Russia's true goal in strengthening its military presence in Central Asia is to shore up its weakening influence in the region, say analysts.
A missile defence system that Russia is planning to deploy in Central Asia threatens regional security and empowers the Kremlin, critics say.
Uzbek troops participated in joint military drills for the first time in the United States, while Defence Minister Abdusalom Azizov met with CENTCOM leadership in Florida.
The top commander of the Syrian Democratic Forces says the operation to oust IS from Syria is nearing a conclusion.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said Moscow was ready to work with Washington to save a crucial arms control treaty, but Russia continues to violate the deal.
The Kremlin's latest provocation involves the Iskander-M missile system, which is capable of launching a nuclear missile in violation of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.
Putin's claims that Russia's newest weapons are 'invulnerable' have been widely ridiculed by defence analysts and observers as far-fetched and politically motivated.
The United States has 'credible information' that Russian allegations of a chemical weapons attack by Syrian rebels last month are false.
The five-day drills represented a comprehensive test of the army's combat readiness, according to officials.
Twenty-one law enforcement and military personnel from Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan took part in the course organised by the OSCE Programme Office in Dushanbe.