Moscow is using the threat of terrorism as a pretext for building up its presence in Central Asia, but the reality may be more self-serving, analysts say.
The one-week course focused on developing skills 'needed to locate and collect evidence, reconstruct a device and leverage international co-operation' in post-blast investigations.
Every citizen in Kazakhstan is required to provide his or her personal data to mobile phone carriers by December 31.
The Kremlin is backing Tehran's sectarian agenda in an attempt to claw its way back into relevancy in the Middle East, Afghanistan, Central Asia and beyond.
Astana is seeing a potential threat from the Kremlin to its territorial integrity and is betting on more reliable partners in the West, Kazakhstani observers say.
Russia prevented access to inspectors for a full two weeks, but specialists say they will be able to identify any use of chemical weapons or any tampering with evidence.
The Kremlin cited 'security concerns' for the continued delay, despite the fact the Syrian government organised a tour of the town where the attack took place for the foreign press.
The near unanimous international support for the strikes carried out on the Syrian regime for its continued use of chemical weapons has left the Kremlin further isolated and discredited.
The once infamous National Security Service (SNB) has changed its name and implemented oversight and other reforms in order to tackle rising security threats and abuse of power.
The replacement of Qari Hikmatullah with another Uzbek suggests the group is having difficulty replacing its leaders and is being forced to depend on foreign fighters with fluctuating loyalties.