The government received tens of thousands of online complaints in a few months.
The move is expected to bolster regional security and the fight against extremism and trans-national crime.
A recent joint military exercise is the latest example of the strengthening cooperation between the two countries.
During a presidential summit in Astana, the countries' officials signed seven documents on strategic partnership.
Police are making it a regular habit of checking attendance at schools and raiding internet cafes for youth skipping class.
The troops are focusing on fighting transnational terrorism and crisis response scenarios, parties to the exercise say.
The law replaces a patchwork of ad hoc rules and internal regulations that gave police little accountability but also little recourse if they had complaints.
The government is conducting outreach on a number of fronts, including providing religious education to imams and the general public.
Central Asians also consume some of the narcotics passing through their territory, leading to various social problems.
Uzbekistani law enforcement is seeking to protect vulnerable youth from radicalisation and exploitation.