Combined military training prepares partner forces to operate together when needed, according to the US embassy in Uzbekistan.
The updated accord, originally signed five years ago, establishes a 'new era of partnership,' officials say.
The latest move comes amid Moscow's efforts to expand its military presence in Kyrgyzstan -- much to the annoyance and skepticism of Kyrgyz civilians.
The ongoing trial of a political analyst and a number of military personnel for spying for Moscow is part of Uzbekistan's revamped principle of independence, say observers.
Since December, Syrian government forces backed by Moscow have pressed a blistering assault against the country's northwest.
Defence Minister Nurlan Yermekbayev met with the Kazakh president to discuss plans for rationalising military expenditures.
Kazakhstan has completed Operation Jusan to return its citizens from Syria and Iraq. Now the long struggle begins.
The training programme comes as the threat of terrorist attacks in the country remains elevated.
Authorities are sacking officials in the province and promising to compensate survivors after a deadly outbreak of ethnic violence.
The clearing of antipersonnel mines on the border is reflective of the growing trust between the two neighbours.